Finished article

This strange looking pan is a device to generate power from a low temperature heat source. By using the seebeck effect, it is able to produce enough electricity to charge a cell phone and other USB devices. The best part about this contraption is that it has no moving parts. The mars rover curiosity is powered by a thermoelectric generator similar to this, although they use radioactive material as the heat source.

The device has a nimh power pack which stores electrical energy for use whenever you need it, the power pack can be detached for use anywhere. The output is 5V through a USB port. This device would work especially well were there is snow available for extra cooling – for example off grid cabins in remote (snowy!) locations. The bigger the temperature difference between the two sides of the peltier the bigger the power output.

This idea is not new, it has been around for a long time. See here for some very old thermoelectric generators

The peltiers produce between 0.6W of electricity to recharge the battery pack.

Download PDF version here

Materials needed
  • 2 x TEC-12706 Peltier Modules
  • DC-DC USB Step Up converter
  • Small switch
  • Project box
  • Small scrap of vero board
  • 4 x 3000mah nimh/ni-cd batteries
  • 1N4001 diode.
  • Battery holders for the batteries
  • Miscellaneous wire, solder etc.
  • Thermal compound
  • Aluminium or copper milk pan
  • PC CPU Heatsink
  • 4 M4 x 12 bolts
  • 4 Long (>75 mm) M6 bolts for the feet
  • Electrical connectors (screw terminal type)
  • Silicone tubing


  • The PC heat-sink must be big enough for the two peltiers to sit on.
  • I bought the DC-DC converter on ebay, it has an integral USB port.

Videos (best viewed fullscreen) :

YouTube Video

YouTube Video

Step 1:

The heat-sink will be bolted to the milk pan. Mark 4 holes to for bolts to go through the milk pan into the heat sink. The sizing of these holes will depend entirely on the heat-sink

Mark out the holes
Step 2:

Drill out the holes you just marked. The drill size should be 4mm

Drill the holes
Step 3:

Drill matching holes in the heat-sink with a 3.2mm and cut an M4 thread in these holes.

Drill and tap the heat-sink
Step 4:

Lay the peltiers onto the heat-sink, ready for the dry fit. It's best to do a dry fit first to make sure that everything lines up properly. When you're ready to assemble the pan for good, apply thermal compound to both sides of the peltiers.

Dry fit
Step 5:

Bolt the pan to the heat-sink using the M4 bolts. Make sure the peltiers are sandwiched neatly in between.

Take care not to overtighten the bolts as this could crush the peltier chips.

Bolt the peltiers to the pan
Step 6:

Slip some silicone tubing over the electrical wires to help protect them from the heat. This also makes the wires a bit neater.

Slip some silicone over the wires.
Step 7:

Drill four 6mm holes around the edge of the pan for the feet (bolts).

Drill holes for the legs,
Step 8:

Bolt the four legs onto the pan.

Bolt the legs onto the pan.
Step 9:

Bolt the screw terminal to the side of the pan using two M3 x 20mm bolts.

Bolt the terminal blocks to the pan
Step 10:

Connect the two peltier chips in series using the screw terminals. Light some candles underneath the thermoelectric pan and fill the pan with water.

Connect a multimeter to the output and measure the voltage. If the voltage is very low, such as 0.1 – 0.5 volts, then one of the peltiers is probably connected the wrong way around. Flip the wires around on one of the peltiers.

It will take around 5 minutes for the heat-sink to reach full temperature, at this point you should see between 3 – 7 Volts DC output.

Quick Test
Step 11:

Solder up the circuit for the step up converter. The peltiers are connected to the battery pack through the 1N4001 diode. The step up converter is connected to the battery pack through the switch.

Note: The 3.5mm jack shown was not used in the final build.

Circuit diagram below.

Solder up the step up converter

Step 12:

Cut out the holes in the project box for the switches and USB port.

The USB board is glued to the scrap of strip-board to keep it securely in place and the strip-board fits into the slots in the project box.

Cut holes in the box.
Fit everything into the box.

Circuit diagram.